An analysis of the concept of beauty in philosophy
Kant, Immanuel,Critique of Judgement, J. Both Sartwell and Nehamas use Sappho's fragment 16 as an epigraph. Hume's account focuses on the history and condition of the observer as he or she makes the judgment of taste.
Sexiness is not excluded, though it is also not given any special prominence but it is not really in ours either.
Philosophers on beauty
First of all, if his preceptor instructs him as he should, he will fall in love with the beauty of one individual body, so that his passion may give life to noble discourse. Serious, discriminating use of the term maintains the distinction between beauty and other values moral, practical, intellectual, etc. Kirwan, James, Some beauty-claims concern only a specific aspect of an object, e. The influence of this series of thoughts on philosophical aesthetics has been immense. If then a man embraces a woman just as it is useful that he should, he does not do wrong; nor, again, will he be doing wrong in employing beauty for the purposes for which it is useful. A Form may be said to be roughly a property or quality as opposed to the individuals which have it. He calls it a fundamental condition of a finite being in time, where we are always in the process of losing whatever we have, and are thus irremediably in a state of longing. But so far we have given no explanation of the main term, beauty. The technical term for this relation is supervenience: beauty must supervene upon other properties. Consider a type of tree, say maple tree type , which of course is exemplified by many individual trees. And Nehamas writes I think of beauty as the emblem of what we lack, the mark of an art that speaks to our desire.
One person may even perceive deformity, where another is sensible of beauty; and every individual ought to acquiesce in his own sentiment, without pretending to regulate those of others.
For like others he finds himself using the term "beautiful" but he does not want to suggest that anything has a valid claim on his admiration. Kant summarizes this as the thought that insofar as one is having an experience of the beauty of something, one is indifferent to its existence.
For Shaftesbury, there are three levels of beauty: what God makes nature ; what human beings make from nature or what is transformed by human intelligence art, for example ; and finally what makes even the maker of such things as us that is, God.
Plotinus, 21 [Ennead 1. The casual viewer out of context judges it not very beautiful. Anything 5 kg has that mass independently of any subjective experience of it.
Shaftesbury , —29 Schiller's expression of a similar series of thoughts was fundamentally influential on the conceptions of beauty developed within German Idealism: The pre-rational concept of Beauty, if such a thing be adduced, can be drawn from no actual case—rather does itself correct and guide our judgement concerning every actual case; it must therefore be sought along the path of abstraction, and it can be inferred simply from the possibility of a nature that is both sensuous and rational; in a word, Beauty must be exhibited as a necessary condition of humanity. Later we will return to these core ideas and deepen our treatment of them. Hence it is natural, and from the standpoint of theory useful, to call all positive degrees of the continuum degrees of beauty, all negative ones degrees of ugliness. It also refers precisely to the sorts of harmonious and measurable proportions among the parts characteristic of objects that are beautiful in the classical sense, which carried also a moral weight. That there is such a use is obvious from the selectiveness with which traditionally the term is used: beautiful but not good, beautiful but not moral, beautiful but impractical, and so forth. The point is perhaps more clearly conveyed in terms of full membership as opposed to preeminent standing in a class. As we have seen, in almost all treatments of beauty, even the most apparently object or objectively-oriented, there is a moment in which the subjective qualities of the experience of beauty are emphasized: rhapsodically, perhaps, or in terms of pleasure or ataraxia, as in Schopenhauer. For instance the beauty of children's art is usually assessed on different standards than the art of adults, just as are qualities such as cleverness, agility, and strength of children and adults.
On the other hand, if there were no perceivers capable of experiencing such things, there would be no beauty. For there are certainly full instances of iron, sodium and oxygen in space and time.
They are so when they are firmly based as opposed to casual, off-hand, or in some other way ill-founded. I mark the alternative principles with suffixes.
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